Monthly Archives: November 2015


Nuclear Fun Fact: Nuclear in Canada



SMRs: From Small Beginnings

You might have missed it, because there wasn’t any fanfare.  But this country’s small modular reactor industry now has an advocacy group of its own, dedicated to nurturing a flourishing small reactor industry in Canada.

The Emissions-Free Energy Working Group (EFEWG), like CNA, is a membership-supported industry organization.  Member companies join to create a common voice.  It was clear in recent years that regulators like CNSC, and other stakeholders, needed to have a point of dialog with the industry on SMRs – a point of dialog that no one SMR designer/vendor could provide very well by itself.  EFEWG Executive Director Roger Humphries has led the conception and creation of EFEWG, which now has by-laws and paid members.Supplier to Host CountryEFEWG has already been involved in at least one valuable regulatory research project:  INPRO’s “Case Study for Deployment of a Factory Fuelled SMR.”  The Canadian team (EFEWG, CNA and CNSC) elaborated a case study of the regulatory problems posed by deployment of a land-based SMR across international boundaries.

CNA is proud to have helped in the creation of EFEWG.  We will continue to give Roger and his team our support in realizing their vision of a flourishing Canadian small reactor industry.

Nuclear Innovation

New SMR Association to Present on November 18

The Emissions-Free Energy Working Group, Canada’s new small reactor association, will make a
presentation on the margins of next week’s Annual General Meeting of the Organization of Canadian Nuclear Industries on Nov 18 in Ajax, Ontario.  This AGM is themed on Small Modular Reactors Development and Applications.

Here’s what EFEWG Chair Neil Alexander has to say about this event:

OCI is pleased to announce that the Emissions-Free Energy Working Group (EFEWG) has chosen to use the opportunity provided by the OCI AGM and conference on small reactors to hold a follow-up meeting of its own on the work it is doing.  All members of OCI are invited to attend. The meeting is free to members of OCI and CNA but organizations are asked to limit their attendance to one or two representatives.   The meeting will be of interest to SMR vendors, potential SMR operators, EPCs seeking to build SMRs, safety and licensing consultancies and other supply-chain organizations that may benefit from the development of this new industry that will be complementary to the nation’s CANDU expertise.

 The vision of the EFEWG, a not-for-profit industry association, is a flourishing small reactor industry in Canada and it is presently identifying what must be done to turn that vision into a reality.  In the first phase of its activities it is in a dialogue with regulators, both nationally and internationally, and other stakeholders with a goal of ensuring that a framework for regulation is in place that assures public safety and is appropriate for these new technologies. 

 The meeting will start at 10:00am and will be held in one of the board rooms at the Ajax Hilton Garden Inn.  Details will be provided at the conference. The meeting will include presentations by the Chairman of EFEWG, Neil Alexander, and its Executive Director, Roger Humphries, on the activities of EFEWG and will include discussion of work that is taking place by IAEA through its Innovative Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)  program.

Nuclear R&D Uncategorized

A Sunny View of Risk

By John Stewart
Director, Policy and Research
Canadian Nuclear Association

Blue-eyed John Stewart
Blue-eyed John Stewart

Like many blue-eyed, middle-aged men who’ve been hiking, cycling, canoeing and kayaking since childhood, I have basal cell carcinoma, in the form of little low-grade cancerous spots on my skin.

Exposure to non-sun radiation is one of the main risk factors. It’s apparently #2 after too much sunshine – and not counting being blue-eyed, middle-aged, and male, none of which I can be expected to avoid, at least not at this point.

So how come the medical advice I get doesn’t say anything about avoiding licensed nuclear facilities? My doctors know what I do for a living, but none of them tell me to stay clear of Chalk River, Blind River, Kincardine, Port Hope, Darlington or Pickering.

Instead, the advice I get from them is 90% about hats, shirts, glasses and sunscreen (fair enough). About 5% is about avoiding tanning beds and sun lamps (no problem). About 3% is about staying in the shade (ha!). And the remaining 2% is about taking vitamin D so I won’t mind sitting in the shade for the rest of my life.

Why nothing about the nuclear industry? Because emissions from nuclear facilities are so low, they don’t matter.

The non-sun radiation sources that health care organizations talk about include anything other than nuclear power plants, including:

  • Cancer treatment itself (radiation to treat a first cancer might cause a second cancer)
  • Naturally occurring radon gas in my basement
  • Weapons testing programs that occurred before I was born.

Why nothing about the nuclear industry? Again: emissions from nuclear facilities are so low, they don’t matter.


Using E-Beams to Clean Water

The world’s $2 trillion clothing industry drives income for many countries — and for women in particular. Three-quarters of garment workers are women. The waste produced from clothing dyes is tremendous, making the textile dying industry one of the largest polluters in the world – so much so that waterways like Brazil’s Tiete River are unsuitable for human shirts

“Twenty per cent of the global industry of water pollution is from the textile dye industry,” according to Dr. Sunil Sabharwal, a radiation processing expert with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). To make matters worse, traditional water purification methods are ineffective at removing harmful chemicals. However, the IAEA may have a solution. It lies in an electron beam.

Electrons are tiny particles that orbit atoms. When focused into a beam, and aimed at dyed water, they break down the chemical bonds within dyes. That makes the job of removing dyes much easier, which means decreasing the water’s toxicity and allowing it to be recycled.

The textile industry is not the only industry that stands to benefit from this technology. As Dr. Sabharwal points out, the production of tires and food packaging, and sterilization for hospital equipment, all use radiation processing techniques.

“Most of the 40-45 per cent of single-use disposable medical equipment like syringes or catheters are sterilized by radiation,” he says. “If it has to come into contact with a human body, it has to be disease-free.”

Interested in following the latest advances? The IAEA held a scientific forum, “Atoms in Industry,” in September.


World’s Leading Uranium Source?

In less than 15 years, a country that borders China and Russia has grown to become the world’s leading producer of uranium. According to the World Nuclear Association, Kazakhstan provides 41 percent of the global supply. (Canada is the second-largest source, at 16 percent.)Uranium ore

Kazakhstan’s uranium production increased almost seven fold between 2004 and 2011 from just less than 4,000 tons in 2004 to close to 20,000 tons by 2011. Its uranium mines directly employ about 9,000 people (source: NEA).

Kazakhstan exports all its uranium production, because it doesn’t have any nuclear power plants. But that may soon change. In 2002 the government adopted a resolution to develop a national nuclear power strategy, including determining the feasibility and safety of reactors. The goal is to provide the country with high-tech energy to increase prosperity.

In July, Kazakhstan joined the World Trade Organization. That was a major accomplishment for President Nursultan Nazarbayev, who launched the WTO membership effort almost 20 years ago. We work (hard) to become a part of the global community,” he said as he signed Kazakhstan into the WTO.

Kazakhstan recently agreed to supply India with 5,000 tonnes of uranium over the next four years.

The economic potential of the mining industry hasn’t gone unnoticed by Canada. Cameco has partnered with the Kazakh government as part of a four hundred million dollar mining investment. Started seven years ago, the operations have provided financial and employment benefits for both countries, and improvements to the Kazakh mining industry’s environmental record.